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It is situated on the north bank of the Firth of Tay on the east coast of the Central Lowlands of Scotland. The Dundee area has been settled since the Mesolithic with evidence of Pictish habitation beginning in the Iron Age. During the Medieval Era the city became a prominent trading port and was the site of many battles. Throughout the Industrial Revolutionthe local jute industry caused the city to grow rapidly. In this period, Dundee also gained prominence due to its marmalade industry and its journalism, giving Dundee its epithet as the city of "jute, jam and journalism".
The name "Dundee" is of uncertain etymology. Another is that it derives from 'Tay', and it is in this form, 'Duntay' that the town is seen in Timothy Pont 's map c. Folk etymologyrepeated by Hector Boece inclaims that the town's name was originally Allectum, and it was renamed Dei Donum 'Gift from God', following David, 8th Earl of Huntingdon 's arrival there on his return from the Holy Land. Dundee and its surrounding area have been continuously occupied since the Mesolithic.
A kitchen midden of that date was unearthed during work on the harbour in Re lady frm Dundee county, and yielded flints, charcoal and a stone axe. A Neolithic cursuswith associated barrows has been identified at the north-western end of the city  and nearby lies the Balgarthno Stone Circle. From the Iron Ageperhaps the most prominent remains are of the Law Hill Fort,  although domestic remains are also well represented.
The early medieval history of the town relies heavily on tradition. The battle was allegedly a decisive victory for the Picts, and Alpin is said to have been executed by beheading. Tradition names Dundee as the location of a court palace of the House of Dunkeld.
Dundee history as a major town dates to the charter in which King William granted the earldom of Dundee to his younger brother, David later Earl of Huntingdon in — Dundee's position on the Tay, with its natural harbour between St Nicholas Craig and Stannergate now obscured by development made it an ideal location for a trading port, which led to a period of major growth in the town as Earl David promoted the town as a burgh. On David's death inthe burgh passed first to his son, John. John died without issue in and the burgh was divided evenly between his three sisters, with the castle becoming the property of the eldest, Margaret and, subsequently, to her youngest daughter, Dervorguilla.
Dervorguilla's portion of the burgh later passed to her eldest surviving son, John Ballioland the town became a Royal Burgh on the coronation of John as king in Dundee experienced periods of occupation and destruction in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. Following John Balliol 's renunciation of Edward I's claimed authority over Scotland, the English King twice visited Scotland with hostile intent.
Edward the 'Hammer of the Scots' revoked Dundee's royal charter, removing the town's people the right to control local government and the judiciary. He occupied the Castle at Dundee at the outbreak of the First War of Independence in but the castle retaken by siege by the forces of William Wallace inimmediately prior to the Battle of Stirling Bridge. From to the city was again occupied.
Edward's removal resulted in the complete destruction of the Castle by Robert the Brucewho had been proclaimed King of Scots at nearby Scone in Inthe Bruce granted the royal burgh a new charter. Dundee became a walled city in during a period of English hostilities known as the rough wooing Henry VIII 's attempt to extend his Protestant ambitions north by marrying his youngest son Edward, Duke of Cornwall to Mary, Queen of Scots.
The Wishart Arch was believed to be the only remaining part of the wall though a piece behind St Paul's Cathedral may have survived, though this remains unconfirmed pursuant to further investigation. That year, following victory at the Battle of Pinkie Cleughthe English occupied Edinburgh and went on to destroy much of Dundee by naval bombardment. In Julymuch of the city was destroyed by an English naval bombardment. During a period of relative peace between Scotland and England, the status of Dundee as a royal burgh was reconfirmed in The Great Charter of Charles Idated 14 September Much of the city was destroyed and many of its inhabitants killed.
Troubles and financial collapses in the s caused the background of the Tayside Meal Mobs on and which began in Dundee in the summer of Dundee greatly expanded in size during the Industrial Revolution mainly because of the burgeoning British Empire trade, flax and then latterly the jute industry.
Dundee's location on a major estuary allowed for the easy importation of jute from the Re lady frm Dundee county subcontinent as well as whale oil —needed for the processing of the jute—from the city's large whaling industry.
A substantial coastal marine trade also developed, with inshore shipping working between the city of Dundee and the port of London. The industry began to decline in the 20th century Re lady frm Dundee county it became cheaper to process the cloth on the Indian subcontinent. The city's last jute mill closed in the s. In addition to jute the city is also known for jam and journalism. The "jam" association refers to marmaladewhich was purportedly invented in the city by Janet Keiller in although in reality, recipes for marmalade have been found dating back to the 16th century.
Keiller's marmalade became a famous brand because of its mass production and its worldwide export. The industry was never a major employer compared with the jute trade. These merged in to form the Alliance Trust. Many of the investors in this trust were notable local figures including land gentry, such as the Earl of Airliemerchants, ship owners, ship builders and jute barons and other textile manufacturers.
The two would finally merge into one firm in The two Alliance Trusts' original main interests were focused on mortgages and land business principally in agricultural areas of the western United States notably OregonIdaho and Texas and Hawaii.
The company also leased mineral rights of properties in Texas and Oklahomaas well as investing in various ventures in Britain and abroad.
In the company was listed on the FTSE Index and the next year moved to new purpose-built headquarters. Dundee also developed a major maritime and shipbuilding industry in the 19th century. This ship is now on display at Discovery Point in the city, and the Victorian steel-framed works in which Discovery's engine was built is now home to the city's largest book shop. Dundee Island in the Antarctic takes its name from the Dundee whaling expeditionwhich discovered it in Whaling ceased in and shipbuilding ceased in The Tay estuary was the location of the first Tay rail bridgebuilt by Thomas Bouch and completed in The bridge fell down in a storm less than a year later under the weight of a train full of passengers in what is known as the Tay Bridge disaster.
None of the passengers survived. Tomlinson et al. First, the jute industry was protected from cheap imports by the state. Tariffs and quotas were not allowed by the GATT agreements. Instead protection came through the continuation Re lady frm Dundee county into the s of the wartime Jute Control system, by which the Ministry of Materials imported jute goods and sold them at an artificial price related to the cost of manufacture in Dundee.
Third, labour unions and management ended the hard feelings that caused so much labour unrest and had come to a head in the dismal decade of unemployment in the s. In the postwar cooperation, employers, unions and the city spoke with one voice. Success in managing jute's decline, and the brief brief [ clarification needed ] of multinational corporations like NCR and Timexheld off decline and there was relative full employment in the city down to the s.
The golden age ended in the s as the multinationals found cheaper labour in Bangladesh, India, and South America, and the Thatcher government ended state support for British industry. By the s jute had disappeared from Dundee. The Timex Corporation was a major employer in the city in the post-war era, but in the early s financial difficulties led to attempts to streamline its operations in Dundee. This led to industrial action and after a major strike in the company completely withdrew from Dundee. After the Union with England ended military hostilities, Dundee was able to redevelop its harbour and established itself as an industrial and trading centre.
Dundee's industrial heritage is traditionally summarised as "the three Js": jute, jam and journalism. East-central Scotland became too heavily dependent on linens, hemp, and jute. Despite Indian competition and the cyclical nature of the trade which periodically ruined weaker companies, profits held up well in the 19th century. Typical firms were family affairs, even after the introduction of limited liability in the s. The profits, either taken from the firms or left on interest, helped make the city an important source of overseas investment, especially in North America.
The profits were seldom invested locally, apart from the linen trade, because low wages limited local consumption, and because there were no important natural resources, the region offered little opportunity for profitable industrial diversification. Linen formed the basis for the growth of the textile industry in Dundee. During the 18th and 19th Centuries, flax was imported from the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea for the production of linen. The trade supported 36 spinning mills bybut various conflicts, including the Crimean Warput a stop to the trade. Textiles thus formed an important part of the economy long before the Re lady frm Dundee county of jute, but it was jute for rope-making and rough fabrics that helped put Dundee on the map of world trade.
The industry suffered a slump in the early 19th century, but recovered after a few years, and the years and saw 12 mills built in Dundee and Lochee. The Dundee firm Baxter Brothers, which owned and operated the large Dens Works complex, was the world's largest linen manufacturer from around until In Edward left the company and two younger brothers ed as partners, the firm being renamed Baxter Brothers and Co.
The company became part of the Low and Bonar Group, jute merchants and manufacturers, inRe lady frm Dundee county
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