Hay zaguanes, verbigracia, de techumbre abovedada surcada por las por lo mismo que palidecía bajo las lamparillas eléctricas, dentro de su terno gris. Zaguanes. Pasajes. . Motores térmicos y motores eléctricos Elementos principales de los distintos tipos de carretillas Mantenimiento básico e indicadores de. meramente de ser, sino de ser en este mundo preciso, donde hay zaguanes y palabras y naipes y escrituras eléctricas en la limpidez de las noches (Inq. 26).
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This book focuses on six of the best-known examples, combining social and architectural history to zaguanes electricos the roles played by both architects and clients, and to explore the process of collaboration and negotiation through which decisions about program and design were made.
For the past twenty years architectural historians have been using interdisciplinary approaches to analyze the evolution of domestic architecture in Europe and America in the context of changing social behaviors and values, especially among the middle class.
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Using letters, handbooks of advice, etiquette books, and other documents as zaguanes electricos, historians have shown how attitudes about 27 Frank Lloyd Wright.
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Yet there is another explanation for why individual women clients proved to be such effective catalysts for creativity in modern domestic architecture: Housing was a priority for many modern architects, who were preoccupied by questions of household efficiency, health, standardization, new materials, and technology.
The examples described in this book show how the goals of independent women clients were thoroughly entwined with the theories of these designers: A powerful fusion of feminism with the forces of change in architecture thus propelled these projects into uncharted realms of originality.
Although it had become clear well before the end of the nineteenth century that the zaguanes electricos seats of economic and political power were the urban offices and boardrooms where men carried out their work, many women recognized that by taking control of the domestic realm — and by claiming expertise in all matters relating to it — they could gain a measure of independence in their own lives.
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The middle-class home was the stage on which the drama of social differentiation was enacted: As guardians of the domestic realm, middle-class women were thus asked to play a difficult and contradictory role: Women reformers can be roughly divided into two broad categories.
One group dedicated itself to expanding the influence of women by concentrating on zaguanes electricos values and pursuits traditionally associated with gentility in the home: A second group of reformers, generally a generation younger than the women discussed above, focused on higher education, professional opportunities, and political activism.
For these women in particular — indeed, for any woman who devoted much of her time and energy to activities outside the home — marriage was difficult or impossible.
Since zaguanes electricos to 60 percent of female college graduates from this period did not marry compared with only 10 percent of the female population as a wholeand since the divorce rate was increasing in all classes of society, more women began to seek alternatives: For substantial numbers of middle-class women, then, the familiar spaces of home and parlor began to feel constricting, and they looked for new environments in which to live freer, more useful, and more modern lives.
The goals and expectations of the clients discussed in this book were shaped by the broad movement for feminist reform outlined above.
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Coming of age between andthese women whether or not they considered themselves feminists carried within themselves the categories and contradictions their culture had constructed, and they looked to modern architecture and to architects to provide zaguanes electricos with the spaces in which to live out new roles and relationships: In so doing they confronted two areas of concern.
First, they faced the conflict between the expectation of marriage and the independent lives that they had chosen; as women heads of households — whether single, widowed, divorced, lesbian, or in other sorts of unconventional zaguanes electricos arrangements — they redefined domestic space to create room for a range of relationships that crossed boundaries prescribed by age, class, gender, and sexuality.
By choosing to build for themselves and their households, they made a radical statement about the value of their lives as independent women.
The walls of the new house encircled the original family home, which was later demolished. While this new approach often led to a more fluid exchange zaguanes electricos public and private space, and to more communal activities, it is significant that many women clients zaguanes electricos a balance between family and privacy, or chose to live alone… … By focusing on their own homes, women clients sought not only to implement change but also to participate in a creative process.
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But what of other sorts of clients who share some of the characteristics of the women discussed above? Married women, for example, or bachelors? Both groups differ in fundamental ways as clients from the independent women described here. Great works of domestic architecture have been produced in such circumstances, but they fall outside zaguanes electricos categories suggested here.
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The question of single male clients is even more complex. In the period with which this book is concerned, the social pressures placed on men to marry were as great as or even greater than those confronting women, since the specter of homosexuality was far more threatening for bachelors than for single women.
Unlike women, even when men remained single they were not considered outcasts from the social order, Moreover, without women in their homes, bachelors were typically viewed as exempt from the demands of housework and the rituals of family zaguanes electricos.
Furthermore, as clients for houses, single men were comparatively rare; men often waited until they married to plan for permanent homes.
Yet at the same time, Borges and Joyce differ in relation to the central aesthetic of their creative projects: Please try again later.